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Inflation is the term used to describe a rise of average prices through the economy. It means that money is losing its value. The underlying cause is usually that too much money is available to purchase too few goods and services, or that demand in the economy is outpacing supply. In general, this situation occurs when an economy is so buoyant that there are widespread shortages of labour and materials. People can charge higher prices for the same goods or services.
Inflation can also be caused by a rise in the prices of imported commodities, such as oil. However, this sort of inflation is usually transient, and less crucial than the structural inflation caused by an over-supply of money.